Racial or ethnic profiling is the act of suspecting, targeting, or discriminating against a person on the basis of their ethnicity or religion, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling often involves discrimination against the minority population and is based on any negative stereotypes of the targeted demographic. Racial profiling, however, is not limited only to an individual's ethnicity, race, or religion and can also be based on the individual's nationality. In European countries, the term "ethnic profiling" is also used instead of racial profiling.
Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement. It is an extreme form of police misconduct or violence and is a civil rights violation. It also refers to a situation where officers exercise undue or excessive force against a person. Police violence includes but is not limited to physical or verbal harassment, physical or mental injury, property damage, the inaction of police officers, and in some cases, death. In the United States, qualified immunity is a legal doctrine used to protect officers from litigation after incidents of police violence. This law was issued by the Supreme Court in 1982. In recent years, particularly since the fatal shootin… Read more
Police accountability involves holding both individual police officers, as well as law enforcement agencies responsible for police brutality, misbehavior, racial profiling, as well as other laws relating to equal employment, sexual harassment, etc. Research has shown that the public prefers independent review of complaints against law enforcement, rather than relying on police departments to conduct internal investigations. There is a suggestion that such oversight would improve the public's view on the way in which police officers are held accountable.
Black Lives Matter (BLM) is a decentralized political and social movement protesting against incidents of police brutality and all racially motivated violence against black people. The movement began in July 2013 with the use of the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter on social media after the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of African-American teen Trayvon Martin 17 months earlier in February 2012. The movement became nationally recognized for street demonstrations following the 2014 deaths of two African Americans, that of Michael Brown?resulting in protests and unrest in Ferguson, Missouri, a city near St. Louis?and Eric Garner in New York City. Since the Ferguson prot… Read more